The following is the table showing the “most commonly used” Greek Alphabets and their typical meaning in Physics. Also lists the Physical Constants which they typically represent.

Greek Letter | Upper Case | Lower Case | Commonly Represents in Physics |
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Alpha | Angular acceleration Linear Expansion Coefficient Alpha particle (helium nucleus) Fine Structure Constant |
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Beta | Beta particle (high energy electron) Sound intensity |
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Gamma | Gamma ray (high energy EM wave) Ratio of heat capacities (in an ideal gas) Relativistic correction factor |
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Delta | – Change – Infinitesimal change |
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Epsilon | Emissivity Strain Permittivity EMF |
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Zeta | Damping ratio Coefficient of viscous friction in polymers Relative Vertical Vorticity in Fluid Dynamics |
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Eta | Viscosity Energy efficiency |
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Theta | Angle Temperature |
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Iota | Identity Matrix Moment of Inertia |
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Kappa | Spring constant Dielectric constant |
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Lambda | Wavelength Thermal conductivity Constant Linear Density |
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Mu | Coefficient of friction Electrical mobility Reduced mass Permeability |
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Nu | Frequency | ||

Xi | Damping coefficient | ||

Omicron | {not commonly used} | ||

Pi | |||

Rho | Volume density Resistivity |
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Sigma | Boltzmann constant Electrical conductivity Uncertainty Stress Surface density |
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Tau | Torque Tau particle (a lepton) Time constant |
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Upsilon | mass to light ratio | ||

Phi | Magnetic / electric flux Angle |
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Chi | Susceptibility | ||

Psi | Wave function | ||

Omega | Ohms (unit of electric resistance) – Angular velocity |

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